Friday, March 2, 2007
Friday, February 2, 2007
Many buildings contain asbestos, which was used in spray-applied flame retardant, thermal system insulation, and in a variety of other materials. Asbestos was sometimes "flocked" above false ceilings, inside technical ducts, and in many other small spaces where firefighters would have difficulty gaining access. Structural components like asbestos panels were also used. In residences, asbestos was often a component of a type of flocked acoustic ceiling called "popcorn ceiling", until its production was banned in the U.S. in 1978. However, the ban allowed installers to use up remaining stocks, so houses built as late as 1986 could still have asbestos in their acoustic ceilings. The only way to be sure is to remove a sample and have it tested by a competent laboratory.
Depending on how and where asbestos was applied, it might not pose any risk to most users of the building. If the fibers cannot become dislodged, they cannot be inhaled, and thus the asbestos poses no risk.
However, some methods of applying asbestos, particularly flocking, allow asbestos fibers to gradually drop off into the air. Asbestos poses hazards to maintenance personnel who have to drill holes in walls for installation of cables or pipes.
Even if the workers are protected, such maintenance operation may release fibers into the air, which may be inhaled by others. Interventions in areas where asbestos is present often have to follow stringent procedures. If removal is to be performed when users are still present in the building, it is usually necessary to relocate some users temporarily. Typically, the part of the building from which asbestos is being removed has to be sealed off in order to prevent contamination of the other areas.
If the building is closed to normal users, it may be necessary to seal it off from outside atmosphere so that no accessible air is contaminated. Examples of asbestos removal enterprises include the Jussieu Campus (begun circa 1996 and still going on as of 2005) and the Tour Montparnasse (in 2005, projected duration was 3 years if the tower was emptied of its users, and 10 years if it was not).
An asbestos-containing building that is to be torn down may have to be sealed, and to have its asbestos safely removed before ordinary demolition can be performed. The asbestos removal may take longer and cost more than the actual demolition. For example, the former seat of parliament of East Germany, the Palast der Republik was stripped of most of its asbestos between 1998 and 2001, before it was finally demolished starting in 2006. The demolition process alone is expected to cost between 20 and 60 million Euros.
Friday, January 26, 2007
Many asbestos cancers will not arise in a victim until twenty years or more after first exposure to asbestos. Typically, asbestosis or (pleural plaques) will not occur until at least ten to twenty years after first exposure.
The degree of exposure that a person sustains, impacts the time it takes to show symptoms. A persons individual susceptibility also impacts this.
Thursday, January 25, 2007
Asbestos diseases are said to follow the trail of exposure. That means that wherever people have received asbestos exposure, regardless of their trade, age, sex or race, they are at risk of cancer and other diseases. Certain occupations, however, are known to be those where risk of exposure to asbestos is great, and the numbers of people in such occupations contracting asbestos disease are high. Some examples follow:
Insulator aka Asbestos Worker
Prior to 1975, asbestos was used in a considerable number or construction materials. Individuals who insulated furnaces, steam pipes, ovens, or any other high temperature vessel, cut, sawed and applied asbestos block insulation, pipe covering and cements directly. The insulation trade brought workers directly into heavy contact with asbestos and heavy exposure. Even after asbestos was banned as a practical matter in construction materials in 1975, insulators still were involved in repair and maintenance work of asbestos in-place.
Prior the the 1970's the use of asbestos in the insulating trades was so prevalent that insulators in past days were simply called "asbestos workers."
Boilermakers built and repaired boilers and heat containment vessels containing asbestos. Their occupation involved many of the same responsibilities as the insulators discussed above.
In decades past, ship piping, boilers and furnaces were insulated with asbestos. Since fitting out a ship involved cutting and installing asbestos in often small, poorly ventilated spaces, exposures were high.
Asbestos has been used heavily in the steel industry. The "turn-arounds" of steel ovens, the use of asbestos in steam pipes and on boilers in the steel industry has created a documented path of victims.
Asbestos is place has created a hazard which remains even today. In the maintenance and repair of facilities with asbestos in place, the material may be disturbed and release asbestos in the air.
Steam pipes in decades past were insulated with asbestos block and cement. Gaskets contained asbestos. A steam fitter would be repairing and replacing pipes covered with asbestos. This process was dangerous. Further, steam fitters often had to remove asbestos gaskets that would adhere to pipe flanges or valves. Often a wire brush driven by an electric motor was used to clean off gaskets. The particular process created high dust levels.
Asbestos was used in automobile brakes for several decades. The grinding of brake shoes during installation would create high levels of asbestos dust. Further, dust would accumulate in the brake drum area and become air borne during the replacement of old brake shoes with new shoes. Often brake drums were cleaned with air hoses, releasing millions of asbestos fibers in the air. Some brake shoes, even today, contain asbestos.
Wednesday, January 24, 2007
Chrysotile - (White Asbestos) This was the form of asbestos used predominantly in products manufactured in the United States. Although small amounts of chrysotile were mined in the United States, the overwhelming majority of the asbestos was mined in Canada and then shipped into the United States.
Amosite - (Gray Asbestos) Amosite asbestos was used to a lesser extent than Chrysotile. Most of the amosite asbestos used int he United States was mined in South Africa.
Crocidolite - (Blue Asbestos) This form of asbestos was the least used in commercial products. Approximately 10% of the asbestos used in the United States was crocidolite.
Chrysotile asbestos is known as serpentine because it is found in serpentine rock. Amosite asbestos is an amphibole. Although asbestos products have not been used in construction since approximately 1975, the products in place present a clear danger to men involved in repair work in the demolition of structures containing asbestos products.
Friday, January 19, 2007
Every person’s case is unique and should be based on an individual basis. Additionally every state has its own guidelines. It is also important to note that no lawyer can practice in every state. When choosing a law firm keep this in mind. Approaching a large law firm may help you if you need to file in a different state as they may have employees in that state. If they don’t, they will often have contacts through their existing network of qualified lawyers in that state.
Also keep in mind that the field of law is specialized. You would not want to hire a plumber to take care of an electrical problem in your home. Likewise, make sure the lawyer you retain is qualified to handle the lawsuit you want to pursue.
When you first meet with your law firm, your initial contact starts with the information gathering process. You need to provide your lawyer essential information about yourself, family members, your work history and your exposure to asbestos. This is also the time to reveal you medical history. Your lawyer may have you sign a release so that they can get additional information on your employment and on your medical records.
After this first meeting, you will hear from the lawyer if they recommend filing a lawsuit and if the lawyer is willing to represent you. Lawyers are in the business of making money and will not usually accept a case if they believe there is not a reasonable chance of a successful outcome. This is a harsh reality - but a true one.
Now once a law firm takes you as a client, you need to sign a retainer agreement. This is a contract between client and the law firm, and presents in detail all of what the law firm will represent, the contingency fee structure, and so on. If you go to a large law firm, an attorney from that office will meet with the you and go over these matters in detail.
You may be advised by your lawyer that you have a viable workers' compensation claim against your employer(s). There are some circumstances where the lawyer we handle both the civil lawsuit and the workers' compensation application, but there are exceptions. Also be aware that a Workers' compensation claims for complex asbestos matters can take six to twelve months to resolve.
Filing the complaint
The formal start of a case comes when your lawyer files the complaint against all companies that you and your lawyer believe are or might be responsible for the asbestos exposure. These might include asbestos mining companies, manufacturers, distributors, brokers, insulation contractors, other contractors whose workers used asbestos products (e.g. sheet-metal, joinery, fireproofing) or were responsible for safety (e.g. the prime or general contractor), and the owners of the sites where exposure occurred.
Determining which companies to sue is a complex matter. As a general rule, the lawyer will usually file suit against more than a dozen defendants (and can go as high as 50).
You in legal terms is known as the plaintiff in the lawsuit - because you are making the complaint. The companies that you sue are called defendants - because they are defending. The defendants have about a month, after receiving the complaint, to respond.
"Discovery" is a legal term, but it really means nothing more than the process for all the parties in a lawsuit to discover things relevant to the lawsuit. Your law firm discovers things by asking written questions (called interrogatories) and asking for documents (subpoenas and requests for production of documents.) The defendants find out things about you such as employment and medical history. On behalf of you your law firm finds out relevant information about who was responsible for your asbestos exposure at different places and at different times. Using this information, each side puts together its case.
Here is where it starts to get scary. Don’t worry; your lawyer is there to help you. Your lawyer will meet with you prior to the deposition - to explain what will happen, prepare you for the deposition and address your concerns. Your lawyer will be with you at the deposition protecting you.
Part of the discovery process is the deposition. This is a legal proceeding that takes place in or near your home or my be handled at your law firms office. You under oath and on videotape, answers questions posed by attorneys. Your lawyer starts the first round of questions, then the attorneys for the defendants have their chance. A normal deposition lasts a couple of hours but can stretch out for more then a day.
Behinds the scene investigation
It is often necessary for your lawfirm to hire investigators to gather information from many sources, to identify the asbestos products that you were exposed to, and to identify the companies responsible for the products and for "safety" at the work site. These investigators will likely contact co-workers, review depositions, visit libraries and archives, query the lawfirms databases, search records collections, contact other law offices that might have information on the topic, access government document collections, and examine company records. This investigation process is critical and they should leave no stone unturned as they expand upon the information gathered at the first interview. It is not uncommon for them to review thousands of pages and talk to over a hundred potential witnesses.
If you are in poor health, this stage of the case is usually compressed into a couple of months. However, if there is no medical urgency, the to and fro of the discovery process between plaintiffs and defendants can extend over many months.
Over the years, a number of asbestos companies have filed for bankruptcy; many have set up settlement trusts that are separate from the litigation process. While moving the case towards trial, your lawyer will submit claim forms and negotiate with these settlement trusts. The money received from these trusts is generally much less than would have been received had they been in the litigation, and the terms of payment are often delayed over many years, but your lawyer has no control over this and will do the best they can in these types of circumstances.
Preparing for trial and reaching settlements
Your lawyer does not want to drag this out over a long period of time and as soon as possible, will ask the court to put the case on the trial calendar. If you are in poor health, your lawyer will shorten the discovery process and ask the judge to expedite the case by moving it rapidly to the top of the trial calendar. A long period of discovery is a luxury that many clients cannot afford.
Putting the case on the court's trial calendar also marks the beginning of serious settlement negotiations. Your lawyer will consult with you and enter into negotiations with the defendants. Your lawyer will present each defendant with a demand that is reasonably based on that company's share of liability in the lawsuit.
Many defendants choose to settle once presented with the evidence against them, but your law firm we often start a trial against one or more of the defendants. It frequently happens that during the course of jury selection the remaining defendants agree to settle; others settle during trial. It is unusual for a case to go all the way to a verdict.
Asbestos trials usually last about a month with evidence being given by treating doctors, oncologists, pulmonologists, pathologists, industrial hygienists, co-workers, the client and family, and others.
When a case goes through to verdict, the losing party or parties usually appeal. This means that the final outcome of the trial can be delayed for many months or even years.
When each defendant settles, the plaintiff and family members have to sign a release. This document releases that defendant from further responsibility in the matter. This means that you cannot sue them again for the same thing.
There is also the question of how to distribute the money. It has to be divided, or apportioned, between the injured person and his/her dependents. One of the first requests your lawyer will make to you is that you schedule a meeting with an attorney who specifically handles wills, estates and probate matters, and to review their entire estate plan or create a new one. Remember, areas of law are unique. You don’t want that plumber doing electrical work…Having a current, clear and accurate assignment of one's property - including the potential value of the pending asbestos lawsuit - goes a long way towards making the settlement and money distribution process a smooth one. Once all the parties have signed the release document, payment is usually made within three months.
Unfortunately, if you were to die before the resolution of the case, your lawyer would have to put the personal injury case on hold and file a wrongful death case. The cases will be consolidated and the discovery process will pick up the process of discovery, trial preparation and settlement negotiation where we left off.